Vladimir Putin bides his time as Ukraine conflict anniversary approaches

When the invasion of Ukraine began in February 2022, some analysts predicted it might take as few as three days for Russian forces to capture the capital of Kyiv.

With the war now entering its third year, Russian President Vladimir Putin seems to be trying to turn that initial failure to his advantage by biding his time and waiting for Western support for Ukraine to wither while Moscow maintains its steady military pressure along the front line.

Mr Putin’s longer timeline still has its downside, with the conflict taking a heavy toll on Russia by draining its economic and military resources and fuelling social tensions even as the death of imprisoned Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny serves as a chilling reminder of the Kremlin’s ruthless crackdown on dissent.

Mr Putin has repeatedly signalled a desire to negotiate an end to the fighting but warned that Russia will hold onto its gains.

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A Su-25 warplane is seen from the cockpit of another such aircraft as they fire rockets on a mission over Ukraine (Russian Defence Ministry/AP)

Some recent developments have fed the Kremlin’s optimism.

Aid for Ukraine remains stuck in the US Congress while Nato allies have struggled to fill the gap following Ukraine’s underperforming counteroffensive last summer.

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky’s decision to dismiss his popular military chief, General Valerii Zaluzhnyi, disappointed many in the country and worried its Western allies.

And Donald Trump, who has repeatedly claimed that he would negotiate a quick deal to end the war if elected, recently spooked Nato by saying he could allow Russia to expand its aggression in Europe if alliance members fail to increase their defence spending.

Tatiana Stanovaya of the Carnegie Russia Eurasia Centre said a possible Trump return to the White House would serve Mr Putin’s goals.

“He sees Trump as a figure likely to wreak destruction and believes the consequences of a second Trump presidency would be to weaken the West and deprive Ukraine of the support it needs,” Ms Stanovaya said in a commentary.

As the Kremlin watches for more signs of crumbling Western support for Ukraine, Russian forces captured the eastern stronghold of Avdiivka over the weekend after a fierce battle in which Ukrainian forces reported an increasingly desperate shortage of munitions.

The seizure set the stage for a potential Russian push deeper into Ukraine-held territory.

“While no large-scale offensive is currently taking place, Russian units are tasked with conducting smaller tactical attacks that at minimum inflict steady losses on Ukraine and allow Russian forces to seize and hold positions,” said Jack Watling and Nick Reynolds of the Royal United Services Institute.

“In this way, the Russians are maintaining a consistent pressure on a number of points.”

Amid the fierce battles in the east, Russia also has sought to cripple Ukraine’s defence industries with a steady series of strikes.

It has used long-range cruise and ballistic missiles as well as Iranian-made Shahed drones to saturate and overwhelm Ukrainian air defences that are experiencing a growing shortage of munitions.

“In terms of Russian industry’s capacity to support ongoing operations, Russia has significantly mobilised its defence industry, increasing shifts and expanding production lines at existing facilities as well as bringing previously mothballed plants back online,” Mr Watling and Mr Reynolds said.

“This has led to significant increases in production output.”

They also note that Russian arms industries continue to depend on Western-supplied components, arguing that tighter enforcement of sanctions could disrupt this.

Some Moscow analysts acknowledge, however, that the Russian military is facing multiple challenges.

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Soldiers of Ukraine’s National Guard 1st Brigade hold combat training in northern Ukraine (Efrem Lukatsky/AP)

Mr Baluyevsky said in a recent article that Western-supplied artillery are superior to Russian systems.

Western officials and analysts note that while the 930-mile front line has remained largely static with neither side making significant gains, Ukrainian forces have launched bold missile and drone attacks deep behind the line of contact, raising the costs for the Kremlin and challenging Putin’s attempts to pretend that life in Russia is largely unaffected by the war.

Ukraine has launched audacious attacks on oil terminals and refineries deep inside Russia, as well as its naval and air assets in the Black Sea region, in a painful blow to Moscow’s military capability.

That includes the sinking of two Russian amphibious assault ships and a missile boat along with strikes on air bases in Crimea that knocked out radar facilities and destroyed warplanes.

Last month, Ukrainian troops downed a Russian early warning and control aircraft over the Sea of Azov and badly damaged a flying command post, some of Moscow’s most precious intelligence assets.

Western officials praised the efficiency of Ukrainian attacks, noting Kyiv has smartly used its limited resources to rout far more numerous Russian forces and destroy about 20% of the Black Sea Fleet, effectively ending Moscow’s maritime dominance there.

The UK Ministry of Defence said in a recent intelligence update that Ukraine’s successes forced the Russian navy to sharply limit operations in the western Black Sea, allowing Kyiv to expand its agricultural exports despite Moscow’s withdrawal from a deal brokered by Turkey and the UN that guaranteed safe shipment of Ukrainian grain.

Mr Putin, who is all but certain to win another six-year term in the March 15-17 presidential election, has sought to consolidate public support by casting the conflict as a fight against the expansionist West that has armed Ukraine in a bid to weaken Russia.

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Municipal workers follow the orders of the authorities and takes away flowers brought by people to pay tribute to Alexei Navalny from the Memorial to Victims of Political Repression in St Petersburg, Russia (Dmitri Lovetsky/AP)

Thousands of Russians lined up in freezing temperatures in many cities to sign petitions supporting the candidacy of Boris Nadezhdin, a liberal politician who made ending the war his chief campaign pledge.

While Mr Nadezhdin was eventually barred from the ballot by election officials who tossed out many signatures as invalid, the massive show of opposition sympathies clearly embarrassed the Kremlin.

In another sign of anti-war sentiments, wives of some soldiers recruited during a hasty and widely unpopular partial mobilisation in autumn 2022 demanded their discharge from service.

But Mr Putin has continued to project total control: Police arrested hundreds simply for laying flowers in tribute to Mr Navalny, whose death dealt a devastating blow to the already fractured opposition.

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